In 1894 a group led by several of Chicago’s most prominent citizens, including Jane Addams, Bertha Palmer and Lyman J. Gage, coalesced around a serious issue: the need to address deep concerns about the city’s economic, political and moral climate at the end of the 19th century. The resulting organization, called the Civic Federation, evolved during the 20th century to become a leading advocate for governmental fiscal responsibility and an effective champion of rational tax policy. The work of the Federation continues to evolve in the 21st century as a greater emphasis is placed on working with government officials to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability of Chicago-area governments.